Thanks very much! To answer your question, I'd say that philosophy is what allows the structures of science to function within human societies. Philosophy provides ethical insight and limitation into scientific development; we do not experiment on humans, for example, due to philosophical ethics. Philosophy expands upon concepts that science cannot. For example, what existed before the universe exploded into existence. It can formulate reasoned hypotheses to answers that science will never be able to arrive at. Philosophy addresses the social and cultural conditions that science dwells in.
For example, science today is primarily governed by Capitalist interests- philosophy allows us to examine those interests, and resist them. I can go on, but, in a very simple way- philosophy allows us to explore beyond the rudimentary. Science is the act; but without thought, consideration, and criticism, it is meaningless RSS Feed. Let me begin by saying that I love science, but when it comes to the UFO question, it alone cannot save Ufology, nor can it lead some sort of revolution in the field. The call of many in the UFO discourse is that mainstream science is essential to understand the phenomenon.
While the sciences may be able to provide insight, the current economic and social realities of the West will not allow this happen. Science is very much a Capitalist endeavour; the race towards new products, patents, and the development of new technologies makes or breaks corporations, economies, and shifts world markets.
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Even in academia, collegial bodies and universities, which mostly function within Capitalist mechanisms, control who gets research grants. While Ufologists may be hoping for some scientific revolution for the UFO phenomenon, UFOs do not fit into the construct of major production or consumption. Even scientists themselves are limited by their ability to explore the U FO question; many are blackballed for even entertaining the topic. The political Disclosurists will continue to petition the systems of power, which they openly distrust, to release UFO information; information that, by its very nature, is untrustworthy.
The phenomenon has been officially acknowledged by numerous foreign governments. For these reasons and many others, Kean concludes that the UFO problem must be more widely recognized and ultimately solved through an unbiased scientific investigation. The material presented throughout this landmark book is sobering, unflinching, and undeniably awe-inspiring, and moves us toward a goal of properly addressing this worldwide mystery.
An independent investigative journalist, she has been published widely in dozens of newspapers and magazines here and… More about Leslie Kean. Skeptics and true believers will find a treasure trove of insightful and eye opening information. This book is bound to set the gold standard for UFO research. Her analysis is carefully reasoned and to the point; her craftsmanship in organization and writing are superb. Why do its agencies avoid investigating cases of interference with flight operations and instead issue absurd cover-up stories? Her book is a fine piece of journalism — not about beliefs, but about facts.
She has fought long and hard to discover the facts and let the chips fall where they may. She may not have the final smoking gun, but I smell the gunpowder. Leslie Kean has found a thoughtful path between extreme views, documenting the UFO mystery with intelligence and insight. She makes a strong case for U. It is credible, clear, and compelling, without any farfetched jumps in logic and assumption. Its credibility begins on the first page with John Podesta and continues with case studies of extraordinary quality to the very end.
Leslie Kean not only makes the case for, but calls for, a whole new concrete and realistic perspective on UFOs that has more honesty and integrity than any other that I have read. This is a book for anyone with an open mind. Their credibility and integrity cannot be questioned, and their firsthand observations cannot be ignored. The revelations in this book constitute a watershed event in lifting the taboo against rational discourse about this controversial subject. Puthoff, Ph.
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Even among scientifically inclined UFO research efforts, data collecting is often done by amateur investigators. Sturrock ,  astronomer J. Allen Hynek ,  computer scientist and astronomer Jacques F.
Ufology is characterized by scientific criticism as a partial  or total   pseudoscience, a characterization which many ufologists reject. Gregory Feist, an academic psychologist, proposes that ufology can be categorized as a pseudoscience because its adherents claim it to be a science while the scientific community denies that it is, and because the field lacks a cumulative scientific progress ; ufology has not, in his view, advanced since the s. Stanton Friedman considers the general attitude of mainstream academics as arrogant and dismissive, or bound to a rigid worldview that disallows any evidence contrary to previously held notions.
Allen Hynek also commented, "Ridicule is not part of the scientific method and people should not be taught that it is.
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Sturrock suggests that a lack of funding is a major factor in the institutional lack of interest in UFOs. Scientific UFO research suffers from the fact that the phenomena under observation do not usually make predictable appearances at a time and place convenient for the researcher. The UFO problem seems to bear a closer resemblance to problems in meteorology than in physics. The phenomena are observed, occur episodically, are not reproducible, and in large part, are identified by statistical gathering of data for possible organization into patterns.
They are not experiments that can be replicated at will at the laboratory bench under controlled conditions. On the other hand, skeptics have argued that UFOs are not a scientific problem at all, as there is no tangible physical evidence to study. Unfortunately there are no cases that are both reliable and interesting. Peter A. Sturrock states that UFO studies should be compartmentalized into at least "the following distinct activities": .
Denzler states that ufology as a field of study has branched into two different mindsets: the first group of investigators wants to convince the unbelievers and earn intellectual legitimacy through systematic study using the scientific method, and the second group sees the follow-up questions concerning the origin and "mission" of the UFOs as more important than a potential academic standing.
Developed in the s, J.
2. Flying Saucer Pilgrimage by Bryant and Helen Reeve
Allen Hynek 's original system of description divides sightings into six categories. It then subdivides these close and distant categories based on appearance or special features:. Hynek also defined three close encounter CE subcategories:.
Later, Hynek introduced a fourth category, CE4 , which is used to describe cases where the witness feels he was abducted by a UFO. In addition to UFO sightings, certain supposedly related phenomena are of interest to some in the field of ufology, including crop circles ,  cattle mutilations ,  and alien abductions and implants. Skeptic Robert Sheaffer has accused ufology of having a "credulity explosion". Likewise, James McDonald has expressed the view that extreme groups undermined serious scientific investigation, stating that a "bizarre 'literature' of pseudo-scientific discussion" on "spaceships bringing messengers of terrestrial salvation and occult truth" had been "one of the prime factors in discouraging serious scientists from looking into the UFO matter to the extent that might have led them to recognize quickly enough that cultism and wishful thinking have nothing to do with the core of the UFO problem.
A disturbing number of prominent scientists have jumped all too easily to the conclusion that only the nuts see UFOs". In , Peter A. Sturrock conducted a survey among members of the San Francisco chapter of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics , where questionnaires were mailed and were returned, and found no consensus concerning the nature and scientific importance of the UFO phenomenon, with views ranging equally from "impossible" to "certain" in reply to the question, "Do UFOs represent a scientifically significant phenomenon? In , a survey of members of various amateur astronomer associations by Gert Herb and J.
Several hundred sightings were examined, a majority of them having a mundane explanation. After surveying 16 early reports, Lt. George D. Garrett estimated that the sightings were not imaginary or exaggerations of natural phenomena.
General Nathan F. Twining expressed the same estimate in a letter to Brig. General Schulgen, and urged a concerted investigation by the Air Force and other government agencies. In the summer of , Sign's first intelligence estimate Estimate of the Situation concluded that some UFO reports were extraterrestrial in origin.co.organiccrap.com/map280.php
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Hoyt Vandenberg led to the dissolution of Sign and the formation of Project Grudge. The United Kingdom's Ministry of Defence, alarmed by reports of seemingly advanced unidentified aircraft, followed the US military's example by conducting its own study on UFOs in Project Magnet, led by senior radio engineer Wilbert B. Smith from the Department of Transport , had the goal of studying magnetic phenomena, specifically geomagnetism , as a potential propulsion method for vehicles.
Along with the Smith group, a parallel committee dedicated solely to dealing with "flying saucer" reports was formed. Under Ruppelt, the collection and investigation of UFO sightings became more systematic. Until then, 12, incidents had been investigated, the grand majority of which explained by conventional means. Ruppelt contracted a team of scientists from the Battelle Memorial Institute to evaluate early sightings gathered by Project Blue Book. They conducted analysis, primarily statistical, on the subject for almost two years.
The study concluded that the more complete the data was and the better the report, the more likely it was that the report was classified as "unidentified". A statistical analysis of six characteristics, such as speed and sighting duration, found statistically significant differences in at least four of the six categories between identifieds and unidentifieds. However, the report emphasized the subjectivity of the data, and stated that the conclusions drawn from the study were not based on facts, but on the subjective observations and estimations of the individual.
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Robertson , met from January 14 to 17, The recommendations of the Roberson Panel were partly implemented through a series of special military regulations. Rutledge, physics professor at the University of Missouri , to conduct an extensive field investigation of the phenomenon. Since , in an area near Hessdalen in Norway , unidentified flying objects have been commonly observed. This so-called Hessdalen phenomenon has twice been the subject of scientific field studies: Project Hessdalen —, — secured technical assistance from the Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the University of Oslo , and the University of Bergen , while Project EMBLA — was a team of Italian scientists led by Ph.
Massimo Teodorani from the Istituto di Radioastronomia di Bologna. Both studies confirmed the presence of the phenomenon and were able to record it with cameras and various technical equipment such as radar, laser, and infrared. The report affirms that UFOs are an existing phenomenon,  but points out that they present no threat to national defense. From Sept.